Uterine Cancer Screening & Diagnosis


There is no standard screening test for uterine cancer in women without symptoms. Some tests and procedures that can be used to diagnose endometrial cancer or uterine sarcoma include:

  • Pelvic examination: The doctor feels the uterus, vagina, ovaries, and rectum to check for any unusual findings.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create a picture of the uterus so that the doctor can look for abnormalities in the uterine lining. If the endometrium looks too thick, the doctor may decide to perform a biopsy.
  • Endometrial biopsy: This procedure involves removing a sample of endometrial tissue for laboratory analysis. This can usually be completed in the doctor’s office.
  • Hysteroscopy: For this imaging procedure, a thin, flexible, lighted tube (hysteroscope) is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus. A lens on the hysteroscope allows direct visualization of the uterus and the endometrium.
  • Dilation and curettage (D&C): If the biopsy does not yield enough tissue or if the laboratory results are unclear, a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) can be performed. During D&C, tissue is scraped from the lining of the uterus and examined under a microscope for cancer cells. A D&C is often done in combination with a hysteroscopy.
  • More advanced screening can include a CT scan to produce 3D cross-sectional images of the uterus, and an MRI to look at the various layers of the uterine wall.

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